Dr. William Edwards Deming was a statistician, professor, author, lecturer and consultant.
He received his BS in Electrical Engineering from the University of Wyoming. An MS from the University of Colorado, and a PhD from Yale University. His graduate degrees were in mathematics and physics.
W. Edwards Deming
He is best known for his quality improvement work in Japan after WWII. In the 1950’s he taught hundreds of Japanese engineer’s Statistical Process Control and other quality tools such as Pareto Charts.
His message to Japan's chief executives was that quality improvement would reduce expenses and increase productivity and market share. Japanese manufacturers applied his principles and experienced unheard-of levels of quality and productivity improvement.
Dr. Deming's quality improvements created new levels of demand for Japanese products. So grateful were the Japanese that they named their National Quality Award after him 1950.
To this day the Deming Prize is awarded each year to the company showing the best quality improvement. Yearly, the award ceremony is aired on Japanese national television.
Dr. Deming also created his System of Profound Knowledge. He believed that traditional management was plagued with problems and called these problems the Seven Deadly Diseases. To cure these diseases he created the Deming 14 Key Points.
Dr. Deming is credited with popularizing Walter Shewhart’s Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) improvement strategy. Ultimately the strategy became known as the Deming Cycle. Within industry the process is typically known as PDCA. A Pareto Chart can be used to identify a problem and then PDCA can be used to fix it.
Dr. Deming always went out of his way to credit and attribute both PDCA and Statistical Quality Control to Walter Shewhart, the father of both.
Dr. Deming was trained as a mathematician and applied this knowledge to quality improvement. He was not all science though; he recognized the importance of employee attitudes and the impact upon organizations.
He understood and preached that systemic change rested directly at the feet of management.
Dr. Walter Shewhart was a physicist, statistician, engineer, and author. He, along with Dr. Deming, are the fathers of Statistical Quality Control and quality improvement.Dr. Shewhart attended the University of Illinois. He was awarded a PhD in Physics from the University of California, Berkley.
It was Shewhart who in the 1920’s applied the Gaussian (normal) distribution to industrial processes. Using charts, Shewhart showed the statistical points where a process should be adjusted.
His application of the normal distribution to industrial processes is the back bone of quality sciences even to this day.
He differentiated process variation into two categories...
In 1938 Dr. Deming came across Dr. Shewhart's work in quality improvement. This began a long relationship with both doing work for the war effort during WWII. Dr. Deming ultimately took Dr. Shewhart’s work to Japan and put the country on the road to prosperity.
Dr. Juran was a consultant and an author and preacher for Quality. He earned a BS in Electrical Engineering from the University of Minnesota. He graduated from the Chicago School of Law and was admitted to the Illinois bar. He never practiced law.
Juran only held positions in Quality and began his career working in a complaint department. This is likely what ignited his passion for Quality.
Pareto Principle – Application to quality problems Juran discovered the work of Vilfredo Pareto, an Italian economist, and began applying his Pareto principle to quality issues in the form of a chart.
The principle states that 80% of the problems are a result of 20% of the causes. A Pareto Chart points to the high frequency problems that must be worked on to improve quality. To this day the Pareto Chart is probably the most popular quality improvement tool.
He also developed the "Juran Trilogy". The trilogy contains three managerial processes; quality planning, quality control and quality improvement. The purpose of quality planning is to make sure that the people that run the processes have what they need to produce.
During a trip to Japan, Juran learned about Quality Circles. A Quality Circl is a team brought together to make improvements. Quality Circles are usually overseen by a supervisor. Team members have training in the use of Quality Improvement Tools.
Quality Circles support operator ownership and quality improvement.
Juran brought the Quality Circles technique back to the US. The process swept through US industry as a quality improvement technique.
Juran created a Quality Planning Roadmap. The roadmap is used to understand customer requirements, create a design, and develop capable processes.
The road map consists of the following steps:
Philip Crosby was a quality professional, consultant, and author. He earned his degree in Podiatry but quickly turned his attention to business.
In the 1950’s Philip Crosby joined the American Society for Quality and also became a Senior Quality Engineer at Martin Marietta. While there he developed his improvement strategy known as Zero Defects.
He was eventually hired by International Telephone & Telegraph as their Vice President of Corporate Quality.
Book: Quality is Free
Philip Crosby authored numerous books but in 1979 his book Quality is Free swept through the business world. It added further fuel to the US Quality Improvement Revolution.
In his book he pointed out that achieving quality cost money but that poor quality costs even more.
He is the founder of his consulting firm Philip Crosby Associates and the Crosby Quality College.
Crosby’s Four Absolutes of Quality
To support his Four Absolutes of Quality he developed the Quality Management Maturity Grid and the Fourteen Steps of Quality Improvement.
Quality Management Maturity Grid
Bill Smith is the "Father of Six Sigma", a powerful business improvement strategy. He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy.
In 1987 Smith joined Motorola. He served as a Quality Manager and Vice President. After the implementation of Smith’s Six Sigma, Motorola won the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.
Smith passed of a heart attack in the Motorola cafeteria in 1993. He never made a dime, above his annual salary, on Six Sigma.
Dr. Mikel Harry is credited with being a cofounder of Six Sigma.
In 1989 Motorola invited Harry to head up its Six Sigma Research Institute. In his work with Bill Smith, Harry wanted to create a method to put quality tools into the hands of the masses.
He developed four stages of the five stage Six Sigma process; Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (MAIC). The (D) Define was later added by General Electric. The improvement cycle is known as DMAIC. Harry later cofounded the Six Sigma Academy and was instrumental in helping to deploy Six Sigma world wide.
May 10, 16 09:24 PM
A Quality Control Plan is a documented description of the activities needed to control a process or product. The objective of a QCP is to minimize variation.
May 10, 16 08:49 PM
The Largest Collection of Free Six Sigma Tools and Training on the Web!
May 10, 16 07:28 PM
The Weibull distribution is applicable to make population predictions around a wide variety of patterns of variation.